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Will we ever colonize outer space�� ��������̫�ձ��ֳ�����
������That depends on the definition of ��colonize.�� If landing robots qualifies�� then we��ve already done it. If it means sending microbes from Earth and having them persist and maybe grow�� then�� unfortunately�� it��s not unlikely that we��ve done that as well��possibly on Mars with the Phoenix6�� spacecraft and almost certainly inside the Curiosity rover7��.
����If it means having humans live elsewhere for a longer period of time�� but not reproduce�� then that��s something that might happen within the next 50 years or so. But if the idea is to construct a self-sustaining environment where humans can persist indefinitely with only modest help from Earth�� then I��d say this is very far in the future�� if it��s possible at all. We currently have a very inadequate understanding of how to build closed ecosystems that are robust to perturbation by introduced organisms or nonbiological events ��Biosphere 28���� for example���� and I suspect that the contained ecosystem problem will turn out to be much more challenging than the vast majority of space colonization advocates realize. There are a wide range of technical problems to solve�� another being air handling. We haven��t bothered to colonize areas underwater on Earth yet. It��s far more challenging to colonize a place where there��s hardly any atmosphere at all.��
������Catharine A. Conley�� NASA planetary protection officer

 

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